Every season gives Dubrovnik a particular enchantment: during the warm days of the summer the city is crowded with tourists eager to see all the monuments and the mild winter provides a wide range of possibilities to enjoy the city.
Green Mediterranean landscapes, the blue shine of the Adriatic sea, white rocks of the coast enriched by fragrance of the aromatic herbs, millenary gardens, the aquarium with the msot interesting examples of the SeaWorld just opposite to the magnificent cultural heritage of the city stand to enhance the beauty of this unique city.
One of the most fascinating monuments of Europe are Dubrovnik's city walls which encircle the city in a form of an asymmetric hexagon following the natural formation of the coast with the tower of Minceta on the highest point at north-eastern corner of the city and the tower of St. John standing by the sea, on the south-eastern side of Dubrovnik. City wall has been constructed from XIII to XVII century for the needs of defense.
The wall is 1940 m long and 25 m tall, the wall facing the sea is 15,-3 m large and the one facing the mountain is 4-6m large. The city wall has been reinforced with four towers each one standing on one side of the world. The city of Dubrovnik has been put on the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1979.
The wealth of the city of Dubrovnik has always depended on maritime foreign trade. In the Middle Ages Dubrovnik became a Republic and as such was the only city-state on the eastern Adriatic coast, a true rival for the great Republic of Venice. Due to the wealth fare and diplomatic relationships the city of Dubrovnik gained an extraordinary level of development particularly during the XV and the XVI century.
Dubrovnik has always been one of the most important centres where Croatian language, literature and culture were developed. Many important Croatian poets, writers, dramatists, painters, mathematicians, physicists and other scientists lived and worked in Dubrovnik. The city of Dubrovnik is a stage for a very rich social and cultural life, it offers a festival called ‘Dubrovnik Summer Games’, St. Blaze Celebration, Music Festival "Julian Rachlin and Friends", Film Festival ‘Libertas’, Dubrovnik international film festival and many other events.
In 1296 the Republic of Dubrovnik built one of the first drainage-systems in all the world and it is fascinating that those tubes are still in use. The pharmacy in the Franciscan monastery of Dubrovnik has been constantly functioning since the year 1317 until today and it was the third pharmacy built in the world.
The first quarantine in the world was built in Dubrovnik in 1377. Quarantine is a place were people arriving from distant countries used to be secluded for a certain period necessary to discover if they were bringing any disease or they were healthy and safe for the entrance to the city.
On 27th of January 1416, Dubrovnik signed the regulation of prohibition of slave trade and of slave transport which presents the first prohibition of slavery in Europe. The orphanage founded within the monastery of St. Clara in 1432 was one the first institutions of such type in whole the world.
During the construction of the Minceta Tower in 1464, there was not enough stone so it was ordered by law that anyone coming to the city from north and south should bring with him one stone, the biggest one according to one's physical constitution.
Arboretum Trsteno near Dubrovnik was founded in the XV century and it is the oldest arboretum in the world. Two oldest plants have more than 400 years.
Giovanni Angelo Medici from Milan, Italy was the archbishop of Dubrovnik from 1545 to 1553. He became the Pope on 6th of January 1560 under the name of Pio IV. His successor, the Pope Pio V. was the one who recognized the Republic of Dubrovnik. Dubrovnik maritime law on the assurance („Ordo super assecuratoribus“, 1568) is the oldest assurance law in the world.
Nautical fleet of the Republic of Dubrovnik in the XVI century had approximately 40000 sailors and more than 180 huge ships and it was among the strongest fleets in the Mediterranean. In the works of William Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice, the word "argosy" can be found meaning "a ship from Dubrovnik".
The Republic of Dubrovnik was the first state in the world to recognize The United States of America in 1783.
Ljudevit Gaj and Ivan Mazuranic stayed in Dubrovnik for 25 days in the year 1841. Gaj called Dubrovnik an 'Illyrian Parnasus“. Afterwards, the Illyrian movement and Ljudevit Gaj chose the language used in the writings of Ivan Gundulic ( a famous writer from Dubrovnik ) and other writers from Dubrovnik, as a base for standard Croatian language and Ivan Mazuranic finished the verses of Gundulic's unfinished epic poem "Osman". Irish dramatist George Bernard Shaw said :“ All those who are seeking the Paradise on Earth should come to see Dubrovnik.“
River Ombla provides water to the city of Dubrovnik with an aqueduct only 30 m long and it is one of the shortest riveres in the world.
The late Pope John Paul II. Visited Dubrovnik on the 6th of June 2003. He drove through the main street, Stradun in his papa mobile, he served a Holy Mass for 60000 pilgrims at the Gruz harbour and on that occasion he beatified Marija Petkovic.